What is Solar Electricity, Solar Power advantage, disadvantage and principle

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What is Solar Electricity

Solar Electricity is produced from Sunlight shining on Photovoltaic Solar Panel or sometimes referred to as PV Solar. In simple words “Electricity is generated in a Solar Panel”

Principle of Solar Electricity

First discovered in the early 19th century a solar panel generates electricity using the photovoltaic effect. In the research, it was observed that certain materials produced the electric current when exposed to sunlight or light. Two semiconducting material needs to be combined, whereas one layer has to have a depleted number of electrons. when it exposed to direct sunlight, some of the photons excites the electrons, causing a jump from one layer to other. Once an Electrons move from one layer to another, it generates the small amount of electrical current.

Image Source:  kids.britannica.com


Material which is primary using to build a solar cell is Silicon. Silicon cut and polished in a very thin layer often called them “Wafers”. These Wafers then cut and align together to make a solar cell. To take the current, conductive metal strips are attached. 

When a photon hit the silicon, Photon absorption causes some of the electrons to jump from one to another layer. Therefore an electrical circuit is made and this process creates an electrical current.

More photon absorbed by the silicon, the greater the current generated. 

Solar cells generate the electricity from direct sunlight. Few Solar cells can generate electricity on cloudy days and some better solar cells can generate even on moonlight nights.


Individual Solar cells generate a small amount of electrical energy. To make them useful, combine the solar cell together and make a solar module. Sometimes this is known as Solar Panel or Photovoltaic Module.


Advantage of Solar Power

  • Solar is a low carbon electricity generator as compared to generating other types of electricity  
  • Apart from the installation cost, the source of generating energy (Sunlight) is completely free.
  • Solar System maintenance cost is extremely low.
  • Solar electricity can be a great source of power in a remote location, where there is no source of power generation.
  • Solar power installation cost is high, but for the long term, it helps to save big money spent on generating electricity.

Disadvantage of Solar Power

  • Biggest and notable disadvantage of solar energy that the sun is not available 24 hrs when it is not shining or goes down then Solar Panels stop generating electricity.
  • An alternate source of energy required or energy storage is must to provide electricity for 24 hrs.
  • Energy Storage Batteries are very expensive and lead major expenses year after year.
  • Human needs more energy when the sun is not shining, i.e. night.



These are the Solar power advantage and disadvantage, but certainly can say “Solar Power” is far better than any other source of energy.

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