What is Solar Electricity, Solar Power advantage, disadvantage and principle


What is Solar Electricity

Solar Electricity is produced from Sunlight shining on Photovoltaic Solar Panel or sometimes referred to as PV Solar. In simple words “Electricity is generated in a Solar Panel”

Principle of Solar Electricity

First discovered in the early 19th century a solar panel generates electricity using the photovoltaic effect. In the research, it was observed that certain materials produced the electric current when exposed to sunlight or light. Two semiconducting material needs to be combined, whereas one layer has to have a depleted number of electrons. when it exposed to direct sunlight, some of the photons excites the electrons, causing a jump from one layer to other. Once an Electrons move from one layer to another, it generates the small amount of electrical current.

Image Source:  kids.britannica.com

Material which is primary using to build a solar cell is Silicon. Silicon cut and polished in a very thin layer often called them “Wafers”. These Wafers then cut and align together to make a solar cell. To take the current, conductive metal strips are attached. 

When a photon hit the silicon, Photon absorption causes some of the electrons to jump from one to another layer. Therefore an electrical circuit is made and this process creates an electrical current.

More photon absorbed by the silicon, the greater the current generated. 

Solar cells generate the electricity from direct sunlight. Few Solar cells can generate electricity on cloudy days and some better solar cells can generate even on moonlight nights.

Individual Solar cells generate a small amount of electrical energy. To make them useful, combine the solar cell together and make a solar module. Sometimes this is known as Solar Panel or Photovoltaic Module.

Advantage of Solar Power

  • Solar is a low carbon electricity generator as compared to generating other types of electricity  
  • Apart from the installation cost, the source of generating energy (Sunlight) is completely free.
  • Solar System maintenance cost is extremely low.
  • Solar electricity can be a great source of power in a remote location, where there is no source of power generation.
  • Solar power installation cost is high, but for the long term, it helps to save big money spent on generating electricity.

Disadvantage of Solar Power

  • Biggest and notable disadvantage of solar energy that the sun is not available 24 hrs when it is not shining or goes down then Solar Panels stop generating electricity.
  • An alternate source of energy required or energy storage is must to provide electricity for 24 hrs.
  • Energy Storage Batteries are very expensive and lead major expenses year after year.
  • Human needs more energy when the sun is not shining, i.e. night.

These are the Solar power advantage and disadvantage, but certainly can say “Solar Power” is far better than any other source of energy.
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Types of Concrete Pavement - Uses, Application and construction Methods


Types of Concrete Pavement - Introduction

Rigid pavements are high stiffness pavement with the main structural layer is plain cement concrete. Because of high stiffness in contrast to flexible pavement the deformation of the underlying layer to the concrete layer that may appear in not reflected the pavement surface. However, after a certain period, a surface crack may appear on the concrete slab.
Basically, a rigid pavement consists of a PCC layer and a subset layer. in some of the cases, Asphalt layer is used over the continuously reinforced concrete layer. Studies have shown that with an Asphalt layer no top can provide a long life with other advantages such as noise reducing properties. 
The base difference between unreinforced jointed reinforced and continuously reinforced in first two joints are constructed also the longitudinal direction or construction joints. whereas transverse joints are not provided in case of continuously reinforced. 
Depending on the reinforcement and non reinforcement, pavements are divided into four parts 

  • Unreinforced concrete Pavement (URCP) or Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement
  • Jointed reinforced Concrete Pavement 
  • Continuously Reinforcement  Concrete Pavement
  • Continuously Reinforcement  Concrete Pavement with Asphalt Surfacing Layer

Jointed Plain Cement Concrete Pavement

 In this Jointed plain cement concrete Pavement, there is no reinforcement bar for load transfer. However, Reinforcement tie bar often provided to give a base a hinge effect at longitudinal joints to prevent joints opening or edge opening. These kinds of Road pavements are generally used on low traffic volume highways or where cement stabilised soils are used as a sub base. In this type of Concrete, Pavement joints are provided at shorter span such as 10 feet or 20 feet distance. It also helps surface to prevent concrete surface cracking. In some cases, joints are provided after 4 to 5 feet so only one wheel of a vehicle passes through the joint at a time. It also helps a smooth ride experience. 

Jointed Reinforced Cement Concrete Pavement - JRCP

JRCP or Jointed reinforced cement pavement have dowels for the transfer of the complete traffic load across the joints, generally distance for joints ranging from 30 to 90 feet. Reinforcement steel bars is used throughout the concrete slab, whereas amount of steel dependent on the length of the concrete slab. Generally, Tie bars also are used commonly at longitudinal joints.

Continuously Reinforced Cement Concrete Pavement 

It is also known as CRCP, it does not have transverse joints, expect the construction joints or expansion joints. These construction joints provided at specific position such as bridges. In this concrete pavements, high reinforcement is used minimum usually at 0.6 percentage of the cross section of the slab. They also contain tie bars across the longitudinal joints.

Continuously Reinforced  Concrete Pavement with Asphalt Surfacing Layer

The Continuously Reinforced concrete pavement with Asphalt Surfacing layer thickness ranges from 30mm to 100mm. This is also known as Rigid Pavement with continuously reinforced concrete base and Asphalt layer.
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5 Indian Forts Which Are Famous for Their Architecture


India is a land with a deep history, glorious past and rich culture.  It is home to some of the best monuments of the world that depict the good taste in art and architecture of the people here. Among all these edifices and structures the forts are well-known not only for their massive size but also for the marvelous architecture used in building them. 

Amongst hundreds of such forts, a few standout. 

1. Red Fort, Delhi

Red Fort, Delhi

It is one of the popular and most visited places of Delhi. Completely made out of red sandstone using Islamic, Hindu and Persian architecture it stands tall amidst other structures in the capital city of India. The red hue is not lost even till this day as it is still well maintained and kept in an excellent condition. Many more forts were designed and built in the neighboring states too using similar elements of architectural methods. Today it is declared as a World Heritage Site. Millions of visitors come from far and wide and witness the splendid past through its architectural genius.

2. Gwalior Fort

Gwalior Fort

India has several majestic forts and one of them is the Gwalior fort. This central Indian fortress designed using military kind of architecture drawing both from the Rajput and Mughal styles presents an aesthetic look. The walls are carved with altars of different kinds of deities belonging to diverse faiths like Jainism and Buddhism.  This fort had been occupied by many dynasties like Mughals, Suris, Jats, Rana and Marathas. It is now attracting many a history enthusiast from across the world to visit Gwalior to witness its splendor and always its architecture has left them awestruck.

3. Sindhudurg Fort

Sindhudurg Fort

Towards the south of Mumbai in the Konkan Region, a marvelous structure of a daunting size is found. It is none other than the Sindhudurg, which is one of the most famous tourist destinations of Maharashtra. Built by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj this mammoth of a sea fort did serve as a deterrent to the tides and waves of the Arabian Sea and also to the invaders. The entrance stands camouflaged in such a way that it is difficult to locate it from the outside. This architectural phenomenon was created by the engineers of that time using a huge amount of iron and a large number of stones for the foundation, walls and the flooring. 

4. Chittorgarh Fort

Spread over a land of 400 acres it is a World Heritage Site and the biggest fort of India. Intricate artwork is used to construct the whole of the Chittorgarh Fort, especially the two pillars, Kirti Stambh and Vijay Stambh. 4 palace complexes, 19 temples, and 20 water bodies are included in its premises. Exploring the whole monument will take a lot of time but you will feel gratified at the end of the journey to Chittorgarh for having the chance to view of one of the most splendid structures that history has ever produced.  

5. Bekal Fort

Bekal Fort

The sight of the waves striking the walls of this citadel, the Bekal Fort which seems to have been built from the sea is really astounding. One of the very famous destinations of Kerala, this fort is shaped like a keyhole it has a tunnel that opens towards the south. The main purpose of building this fort was to fulfill the defense requirements. It has a magazine where the ammunition is stored has broad steps and leads to a tower which acts as an observatory that helped to view the smallest movements in the surroundings. The rare defense strategy is shown to build its walls. The enemy was attacked from the inside via different holes created at different heights on its walls according to their distance from the fort. The higher ones when the enemy was far and the lower ones when it was nearby.

Each fort may weave a different and unique story of loyalty, gallantry, and exuberance. And each is an architectural marvel no doubt. Visiting them is sure to leave a mark on you. 

Author’s Bio:

India is a land of heroism, liveliness, magnificence and more. Why not hear such tales from an experienced traveler and blogger Rohit Aggarwal Log into his site Trans India Travels to know more about such places?   
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5 Hidden Architectural Wonders of Gujarat

A land of innumerable wonders and sights, the western peak of India and the house of wonderful artworks, Gujarat is a fantastic place to visit. India has some magnificent architectural feats and Gujarat contains the very best of them. The steady hand of the sculptures or the historic masterminds of art, all can be reveled at Gujarat. A land of legends and lions, head on straight to the proud state of India to witness these 5 architectural gems. Read a page of history, written in stone and brick. 

Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara


An exemplar of the Indo-Saracenic architectural style, the palace was constructed in the 19th century, commissioned by Maharaja Sayaji Rao III. Feel like royalty yourself upon entering the beautifully ornate fa├žade. The palace is regally decorated with marble, fine stone and some elegant furnishings. The Grand Durbar Hall within the palace has eye-pleasing, mosaic walls that look and feel exquisite. Other attractions at the palace include serene sculptures in bronze, marble and terracotta, for the wide-eyed history fanatic. The palace, still inhabited by the royal family, also has a Museum and a pond. 

Rani Ki Vav, Patan

Photo by Sudhamshu Hebbar, CC BY 2.0

The most splendid step-well in Patan, Rani Ki Vav is an architectural masterpiece. It was built in 11th century and the age-old stone work remain awe-inspiring till date. A sublime piece of art, the step-well is 64m long, 20m wide and 27m deep. Such a humungous artwork is praised not just for its size but also the quality. Built with intricately cut stone and brick, even the walls of the well are adorned with symmetrical statues. These include those of Vishnu, Ganesh and Lakshmi-Narayan. Rani KI Vav shows the true skill of India’s sculptors, creating music out of brick. 

Ahmed Shah’s Mosque, Ahmedabad

Built for the ruler Ahmed Shah, from whom the city Ahmedabad derives its name, this Mosque is a glorious site to witness. An architectural marvel, it is well revered by many Muslim pilgrims. Located south-west to the Bhadra Fort, the mosque has a gorgeous garden in front of it. Built with domes and minarets, the mosque retains some Hindu figures and symbols, since a temple was demolished at the site to build the mosque. The mosque has a lovely white-marbles step with a yellow-marbles canopy in the shape of a leaf. 

Shaking Minarets (Jhulta Minar), Ahmedabad

Locating in the Sidi Bashir’s mosque, the shaking minarets are the most unique architectural wonder in Gujarat. Built to protect the edifice from earthquakes, according to popular beliefs, it is the most interesting wonder of India’s architectural splendor. Each minaret has beautiful patterns carved on it and they have stone balconies. The remarkable feat of the minarets remains how on the gentle shaking of a minaret, the other one also vibrates, even though a connecting passage between them remains unaffected. The cause of this phenomenon still remains a mystery. Have a look at these shaking minarets and let yourself be astounded by the advanced architectural thinkers of the past. 

Old Fort, Surat

The Surat Fort was built by Muhammad Tughlak to serve as a staunch fortification against his enemies. The fort has been built with stone walls and has iron bars, which once served as protective features against Bhils - the tribal who were against a Mughal rule. The fort is a mammoth architectural splendor and many tourists flock its premises to witness its opulence. Head on over to this fort and revel in the Mughal ruler’s strength and grandeur. 

The wealthy heritage of India’s glorious past can be observed through these forts and tombs. Gujarat offers some stunning historical insights into the pre-colonial past through its architecture. Be sure to have your own tryst with the past and visit these architectural milestones in the wonderful Gujarat!
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Ebay Coupons and Promo Code for April 2016 - 200 Off offer


Ebay Coupons April 2016

We have created this special section to give you best Ebay Coupon codes and recent Ebay Voucher to save big on shopping at Ebay.in. Checkout the fresh and latest promo code and buy product at rock bottom price;

eBay Coupons April 2016 

If you haven’t heard of the name eBay, I would consider you, the reader, to be a little child or a person ignorant and uninformed about the world. eBay stands at an exalted position in the field of e-commerce across the globe. Even if one hasn’t shopped with eBay, he/she is sure to come across this name and logo via newspapers, advertisements and other media. However to many of us, eBay serves in catering to our shopping needs and finding products that we search online. Therefore we are often unaware about the birth and growth of this company. Here’s a detailed description of the company to those who are eager to know more about this successful company.

The beginning years

Pierre Omidyar, the master mind behind the famous and fast growing company, embarked on his successful journey in 1995. Based in San Jose, California, eBay is spread across thirty countries and is known to be a multi-billion business enterprise. eBay, as it is now known, was begun under the name AuctionWeb and was started as a hobby to Pierre. As the interest of the public increased, Pierre Omidyar was forced to collect a nominal fee from the user. However this was welcomed by the crowd. Over the years the numbers of auctions increased dramatically and thus the growth of the company was steady. In September 1997 the company took up a new brand name for itself- eBay. Echo Bay Technology Group, to which the site belonged was attempted to be registered as echobay.com and as the name existed, Pierre Omidyar was forced to shorten it as ebay.com. Interestingly, it is on September 21, 1998 that eBay went public and gained $53.50 on its first day of trade. The company also gained a couple of renowned business names such as Skype, PayPal and iBazar under their control.

eBay Business and Offers

The success of any company is calculated on the basis of customer satisfaction. On the above mentioned factor, eBay undoubtedly has won the hearts of the customers. Here are a few reasons that clearly indicate the uniqueness of the company.
One of the primary focuses includes increasing international trade and to a great extent the company is on the winning side on this aspect.
eBay offers various payment options to the customers thereby making accessibility simpler.
The varied collection of items available on the site makes the site unique and sought after. The company also removes products that violate the Terms and Policies.

eBay Payment Methods

eBay offers varied  payment options such as credit or debit card, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking and Wallet. eBay also offers EMI or equated monthly installment in which the amount is equally divided over a period of months, thereby making it convenient for the customer to pay. This option is available, only for a purchase above Rupees 3500. Cash on delivery is yet another option in which the amount marked against the product is paid fully to the representative who delivers the product. Payback points enable a user to buy a product fully or partially by entering the payback pin. For example, if I want to avail the payback points, I have to sign in to www.ebay.in and create a payback account and finally link the payback account with the eBay account. Then I am eligible to offers and discounts that can be redeemed through payback points. The standard point conversion is 0.25 rupee equals to 1 point and therefore to receive 1 rupee I have to redeem 4 points.
Refund: When the customer has a transaction that is interrupted by poor internet connectivity or other reasons, the money that is debited from the account is replaced within a week’s period by the eBay team.
Shipping: When a product is purchased, the confirmed product is shipped within 3 days and the user receives the tracking number and the product is expected to reach the customer within 5 working days. When the above conditions fail the team strives to meet the expectation of the customer by refunding or providing faster service.

eBay Coupons, Deals and Offers

If you are looking for a coupon to shop on eBay, go to www.google.com and type in the search tab ‘eBay coupons’. You will be directed to various websites that offer coupons for certain time periods. For example, the search has landed me in www.promocoders.in and various eBay coupons are displayed. These offers cover a wide category of products namely furniture, home and dinning etc. and one benefits by the discount received in place of the huge amount.

How to use Ebay Coupon code and Discount Voucher

In order to make use of a promo code, you have to log in to www.ebay.in and browse the categories to view the product of your choice. Once the appropriate product is viewed and selected you have to click the tab that shows ‘Buy it now’ and then proceed to enter the coupon and enter the apply button. Thereafter click on ‘proceed to pay’ to pay through any of the payment mode that seems appropriate to us.
On the contrary coupons will be considered invalid if it has expired or on deals and products that do not allow the use of coupons. Ebay India Promo codes cannot be used after the use of payback points.

eBay today stands as a towering company in the field of e-commerce and offers a wide range of products that are sometimes unavailable through other websites. An added advantage is the numerous Ebay offers, discounts and coupons available online and the popularity of the company makes various others to partner with eBay and give associated offers. One of the striking features that would force me to recommend eBay to a new customer is their readiness to deliver products to small cities and villages. Thus it caters to the need of every customer both in the urban and rural parts across the globe. Their availability, easy access, offers and many payment modes make shopping online simpler for customers like me and I vouch eBay for a pleasant shopping experience.

We also give user a solid and reliable shopping experience on world's top shopping site. They must explore here fresh Ebay India Coupons and Voucher to buy product on cheaper price possible. If you Interest to share Ebay voucher then Pl. give us Discount code in comment section below, which we will publish soon.

Stay updated with latest Ebay India Coupon Code April 2015

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