Career Advice: Civil Engineering For Higher Salary

India is a developing country with an annual growth rate of 10 percent in the field of construction and infrastructure. With this high growth rates you should consider yourself lucky if you are a civil engineer. As 10 percent growth rate in construction sector will create tons of job opportunities in upcoming years in India.

Construction is the backbone of the industrialization and development of any country, no country can achieve it without useful contribution from the civil engineering field. On an average civil engineering salary in India has been increased significantly due to enormous demand in this field for past couple of years. If you are a civil engineering student or graduating in a year or so then civil engineering field will offer you 4th highest salary in the country after Oil, software, IT and energy sector.

Civil engineering salary in India

Salary deciding factor in government and Private sector

Salary will depend upon degree and college where you are studying. For instance, a student who did graduation from IIT will get higher salary than other person who completed graduation from regional college or state university. Good salary compensation in top private companies will depend upon the college reputation and marks you have scored. 
On the other hand salary in government sector is almost fixed for all civil engineers whether you did graduation from IIT or any other state college, and compensation will be paid as per the government rules and regulations. To get a job in the government sector, one has to pass the interview followed by a written examination.

Will government sector pay you more salary than Private Sector?

It is a debatable question, but many of people will give edge to private sector over government sector.  Private companies will pay civil engineer more salary,  because private companies decides salary and packages as per current market scenario, whereas government sector sets pay scale as per suggestion received from pay commission.

Civil Engineering Salary In Government sector

A fresher in civil engineering field can join as a junior engineer or assistant engineer. These graduate engineer will initially get a salary ranges from 12000 to 15000 per month. Following are the major government sector/companies offering highest salary to civil engineering professionals;
  1. PSU or Public Sector Undertaking
  2. Central Public Work Department
  3. Indian defense services or Military Engineering services
  4. Indian Railways
  5. National highway Authorities of India
  6. State government – Engineering division 

Civil Engineering salary in Private sector

A fresher in private sector can join as a trainee or an Engineer. These graduate engineers will get a salary depending upon the following job criteria;
  • Diploma civil Engineer Salary – 10000 to 15000 per Month
  • BE/Btech Civil Engineer Salary – 20000 to 25000 per Month
  • IIT Gradate civil Engineer Salary – 30000 to 60000 per Month
Following are the major construction sectors which offers highest salary to civil engineers in private sector;
  1. Hotel and hospitality industry
  2. Oil and gas industry
  3. Power and Energy Industry
  4. Pharmaceuticals and chemical industry
  5. Construction and infrastructure companies
  6. Cement industry

Above information may be useful to select the right sort of industry after graduating from civil Engineering. If you have any question, please ask below in comment section.

(Image Courtesy: Stuart Miles/

Higher Education : Best Engineering courses for Girls

 In India, there is still huge difference in job opportunities being offered by private and government sector to females.Moreover job scenario is even worse for female engineers in country as most of the companies and government organization does not consider female employee ideal for most  of the jobs. There are only few Industries and government organizations which gives equal job opportunity to female candidates, mostly are the software and Human resource sectors.
Often I have been asked by many of my friends and people about the best engineering courses for girls. Seriously, I will admit that times are tough in such a competitive market scenario to get a job for both the genders.  Therefore, girls have to be more cautious while selecting the right engineering course along with the right choice of college. Ultimately If you are willing to do a job after engineering then you have to select the right branch and college which gives you edge in career once you are out for a Job.

I have thoroughly studied various journals and survey trends,  and prepared a list of best engineering branches for girls.

Below are some best engineering courses for girls which will certainly help them to choose the right engineering majors considering the future aspects.

Best Engineering branches for Girls

Electronics and Communication Engineering 

Electronics and communication Engineering or ECE is the most preferable stream for Girls. because it offers equal opportunity to get a job in hardware and software field. As most of the jobs in this field can be managed from sitting in office, therefore companies equally offer positions to Male as well as Female. 
The highest paid engineer job amongst of other engineers as Electronics Engineer does have a versatile profile and suitable for many of the industries such as software, Electronics, Electrical and education. However few of giant Indian Government sector companies give preference to female candidates than Male in research related jobs.
Employment will grow in Electronics and communication sector by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, which will offer millions of jobs to fresher and definitely ECE graduate girls will have upper edge to dominate the job market in future. 


Usually this is  special category of engineering stream which is a potential field for girl Engineer, who is very much interested in designing, plotting and interiors.  For past few decades we have seen developments as far as Construction and Infrastructure in India is concerned. The sector has measured new dimension and no doubt better career option especially for girls to design buildings, hotels, offices, industries and commercial .
I have seen most of the girls prefer for Architectural work because they do have a good designing and intellectual ability. 
Ultimately Architecture stream will not offer bulk of jobs but dedicated approach and design oriented girls may opt the career as an Architect.

Computer Science / Information Technology

Computer science and IT have been the highest paid engineering streams since it started  in mid 90’s in India. Computer Engineer is responsible to design program, software and websites. They receive mean earning of Rupees 3 Lacs per year in starting of their career, an increase of 10% annually. 
Computer science and Information technology jobs are expected to grow by 10.4 percent, which are average of all years.
India is a hub of IT companies and approximately world’s top 100 IT companies are operating in India, which are producing every year tons of jobs for equally male and female Engineers. As a girl you can choose Information or Computer science major in Engineering if you are willing to relocate in metropolitan cities during your job tenure. 


Best engineering course for girls if they are interested to pursue career in bio technology. Jobs for biotechnology are expected to grow by 9 percent, which is slow than other field. But demand in healthcare sector and foreign investment certainly increase the demand of Engineers in this sector in the upcoming years. Most of the jobs for females in this field will come from design and systems field.

Electrical Engineering

If you are a girl and want to establish a career in Government sector, then probably this engineering branch is for you. Most of the Electrical companies in the sector of  power, energy, generation and distributions are  Government undertaking. These companies are offering positions to Female engineers as per the government reservation policy, and because of large number of job opportunities; chances are always high for female Engineers to qualify.

Apart from the above, companies give equal importance to university and college. Henceforth, select the best Engineering college as this will give you an additional advantage considering your candidature for the job.

You also can read my previous article on Best engineering colleges in India.

(Image Courtesy: Photostock/

Know the Basic engineering of Hume Pipe

Reinforcement cement concrete is toughest material composition to deal with if you want to use the surface immediately. You may adopt any technology but you cannot use the RCC structure until it gets at least half of the strength. I am talking about a some critical construction, where time is major constrain such as highway, bridges, culvert and heavy traffic areas.

Invention of Pre-cast concrete has changed the whole scenario of construction and now critical things are being constructed easily like joining the blocks in a toy train.  Not only Pre cast concrete offers us hassle free approach at construction site but gives us quality finish.

Further Pre cast concrete can be broadly classified into many parts and activities.  RCC or Pre cast Pipe is the major civil engineering achievement, which was invented during the 19th century by Mr. Hume an Australian Engineer. The HUME Pipe process for manufacturing the Reinforcement cement is a conventional system, where concrete is being poured manually after preparing the Reinforcement cage.

RCC Hume Pipe

Process of Casting Hume Pipe

Hume Pipe is also known as Spun Pipe as it is manufactured while spinning the cage at the time of pouring concrete. In HUME pipe manufacturing process,  feeding of the concrete is done manually and cages are prepared and fitted into the mould as per the size of the Pipe. Once reinforcement cage is prepared, concrete mix is poured into the spinning mould.  High grade  Concrete Mix above M30 is considered ideal for Hume Pipe manufacturing.
Casting of HUME pipe is done using the HUME Pipe making machine.

Indian Hume Pipe Specification

This specification covers the requirement of RCC Hume Pipe used for culverts, irrigation, drain and Sewer lines.
Light duty- NP2, Medium Duty- NP3, Heavy Duty- NP4
Optimum water cement ratio and High density.
2  &  2.5 meter and as per requirement
Diameter Of RCC Hume Pipe 
80, 100, 150. 200, 225, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000,
1100, 1200, 1400, 1600 & 1800.
Socket and Spigot, Collar Joints and  Flush Joints
Design of the RCC Hume pipe as per IS: 458/2003 (Fourth revision)

Hume Pipe Selection and laying guidelines

  • First understand your site requirements and use of Pipe. Then choose the diameter and type of joints as per the design.
  • Check the quality of Hume pipe at site, thoroughly examine the pipe and ensure that there is no leakage. Simultaneously check the inside Spun pipe surface and ensure smooth finish to minimize the scouring and friction loss.
  • Pipe joints should be fixed properly and on site leakage inspection should be carried out before backfilling the pipes.
  • Before and after  laying of Pipe ensure proper compaction and gradient to prevent any damage due to heavy load after installation. If required, Cement concrete hunching is done.


RCC Hume pipes are used for sewer, road, highway, culvert, irrigation and water supply. Hume Pipe or Spun Pipes are available in 3 classes, normally NP2 and NP3 are manufactured using the HUME pipe manufacturing machines. But heavy duty pipes NP4 are produced using vertical manufacturing process, which is most advanced and computerized system.
Hume pipes manufacturing in India entirely depends on the construction market, which has been  booming for last  two decades due to enormous growth in construction, infrastructure and power sector in India.

(Image Courtesy: koratmember/

7 Must have IS Code for Engineers

Civil Engineers are working really hard and making efforts to get better results, whether they are casting a RCC column or constructing a wall. But, as a civil engineer how will you ensure optimal level of quality? How will you convince your client and non engineering people that you have done 100% quality construction work?
For this you should have written documents which define the specific criteria of any job or task. These documents are especially being written to thoroughly analyze the subject with respect to test, design and experiments.
In India, Bureau of Indian standard (BIS) is the apex body which is responsible to set the guidelines for engineering design, materials and working procedures. For civil engineering activity it has been publishing the IS codes with the joint approval of civil engineering council. We ought to follow the IS guidelines while carrying out the construction activity.
Below is a list of 7 must have IS Codes which are useful for construction professionals, civil engineers and students.
IS code 800

IS code 456

IS Code 456 is an important code for Civil Engineering professionals and students. This Indian standards code was first published in the year 1953. Since then, It has been revised on many occasions in the year 1957, 1964, 1978 and 2000. The BIS released the latest version of IS 456: 2000 PLAIN REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE– CODE OF PRACTICE (FOURTH EDITION) in the year 2000, further it reaffirmed in 2010. It is also commonly named as an IS 456.
The latest edition of IS code 456 contains 5 sections and 8 annexures. In the section IS 456: 2000 following major points have been covered;
  • Cement 33, 43 and 53 grades, Mineral Admixtures, Aggregates, Reinforcement, Water and Admixtures.
  • Construction material strength, properties, behaviour, testing and workmanship inspection.
  • Concrete Design methods, acting loads & forces, fire resistance, bending moment, shear force, reinforcement and all types of RCC structure specifications and design criteria of beam, slab, columns etc.
IS code 456 is must have civil engineering code book to carry out any kind of RCC and cement concrete related structure work.

IS code 800

Latest version of IS code 800 General construction in steel – code of practice has been reaffirmed in the year 2007. It was first published in 1984 and revised in 1993. IS code 800 dedicatedly serve the purpose of general steel structure design in construction. The major changes made in the latest edition of IS Code 800: 2007 are as follows;
  • All previous versions of codes are written considering the working stress methods or allowable working stress methods. But, IS code 800 published in year 2007 has been especially addressing the limit stress method.
  • Major changes are made to increase the partial safety factors, fabrication factors, gross capacity and net capacity of steel structure. It has been reassessed considering the other major countries practice codes.

IS code 383

IS code 383 has been especially written for giving upper most priority to constituents of concrete other than cement.  BIS released the IS 383-1970 Coarse and Fine aggregates from the natural sources for concrete, and revised twice since it was first published. Further it was reaffirmed in the year 2010 and has superseded  the previous version of IS code 515.
IS code 383 contains the following major points;
  • Fine and coarse aggregates – Quality of aggregates with respect to all major tests such as impact, abrasion and soundness.
  • Size and grading of aggregates, sampling and testing

IS code 1786

 IS code 1786 High strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete reinforcement was first published in the year 1985 and again republished in the year 2008,  and it is the latest edition of the IS code 1786.
This code contains the guidelines for the manufacturers to produce the quality and long lasting steel bars and wire using the process of hot rolling.

IS code 875

IS code 875 has total 5 parts which are mainly addressing the imposed, dead,  wind, snow and special loads except the Earthquake  for building and structures. This code was first introduced in the year 1987 and all the parts were reaffirmed in 2007. Following are the complete list of  IS code 875;
  1. Code of Practice For Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Structures Part 1 Dead Loads - Unit Weights of Building Material And Stored Materials (Incorporating IS 1911 : 1967)
  2. Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings and Structures: Part 2 Imposed Loads
  3. Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures - Part 3 : Wind Loads
  4. Code of Practice For Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Structures Part 4 Snow Loads
  5. Code of Practice For Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Structures Part 5 Special Loads And Combinations

IS code 2502 

 IS code 2502 - Code of Practice for Bending and Fixing of Bars for Concrete Reinforcement is an IS code which helps professionals to understand the steel reinforcement behaviour in bending and fixing. It was first introduced in the year 1963 and latest version of IS code 2502 for civil engineering was reaffirmed in the year 1999.  As we all know, concrete is weak in tension, therefore steel needs to be provided to maximize the tensile strength of RCC. In this IS code 2502 following contains are provided to help Engineers to ensure placement and fixing of Reinforcement in concrete;
  • Bend dimension & symbols, Reinforcement schedule, Spacing, bending and cutting tolerance
  • Measurement of bending structure, binders, links and stirrups bar. 

IS code 1200

IS code 1200 named measurement of building and civil engineering works has total 28 separate parts which contains single copy for every item.  These all standard codes are cover the important information about the measurements and deductions of building and civil engineering works.
Bureau of Indian Standard has been keeping an eye on the construction scenarioon a day to day basis and necessary changes/modification are made as per the suggestions from various civil engineering bodies all across the country. Below is a complete list of all IS code 1200 with their latest publications
  1. IS 1200-1-1992 Methods of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 1 – Earthwork
  2. IS 1200-2-2003 Method of measurement of building and engineering works Part 2 - concrete works
  3. IS 1200-3-1997 Method of Measurement of Building and Civil Engineering Works Part 3 – Brickwork
  4. IS 1200-4-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 4 stone masonry
  5. IS 1200-5-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works part 5 form work
  6. IS 1200-6-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 6 refractory work
  7. IS 1200-7-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 7 hardware
  8. IS 1200-8-2002 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering work Part 8 steel work and iron work
  9. IS 1200-9-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering work Part 9 roof covering (including cladding)
  10. IS 1200-10-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works part 10 ceiling and linings
  11. IS 1200-11-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering work Part 11 paving, floor finishes dado
  12. IS 1200-12-1997 Method of Measurement of Building and Civil Engineering Works Part 12 Plastering and Pointing
  13. IS 1200-13-2002 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 13 Whitewashing, colour washing
  14. IS 1200-14-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 14 glazing
  15. IS 1200-15-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 15 painting, polishing, varnishing
  16. IS 1200-16-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 16 laying of water and sewer lines
  17. IS 1200-17-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 17 road work including air field pavements
  18. IS 1200-18-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 18 demolition and dismantling
  19. IS 1200-19-1999 Method of Measurement of Building and Civil Engineering Works Part 19 Water Supply, Plumbing
  20. IS 1200-20-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 20 laying of gas and oil pipelines
  21. IS 1200-21-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 21 wood-work and joinery
  22. IS 1200-22-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 22 materials
  23. IS 1200-23-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 23 piling
  24. IS 1200-24-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 24 well foundations
  25. IS 1200-25-2003 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 25 tunnelling
  26. IS 1200-26-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 26 Acid resistant lining
  27. IS 1200-27-1997 Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 27 Earthwork done by mechanical
  28. IS 1200-28-1997 Methods of measurement of building and civil engineering works Part 28 Sound insulation works

Apart from the above, I would suggest you to do not download IS code provided by many website as it violates the copy rights of Bureau of Indian Standard. You can buy Indian standard codes online from BIS website at or  grab them visiting BIS office located at New Delhi. 

(Image Courtesy: Keattikorn/

List of Top EPC companies in India

EPC stands for Engineering, procurement and construction. In simple words EPC company means, a company which design, supply and execute the project as per customer's requirement.  India has been growing with great pace and this has offered many national and multinational brands to invest in India to cater the world’s second largest populated country.

To build up the complete setup for any industry is not an easy job and requires time and money. But many of the industries are keen to start the production as early as possible and do not want to waste  time and money doing the unfamiliar project job by themselves. Therefore, they hire expert people who can deliver the quality project  and complete set up including design, procurement and construction on time. These companies are also known as EPC Contractor.

There are thousands of companies which are working as an EPC Contractor in India. We provide you a list of top EPC companies in India, which are the best in the field of EPC and cater the market in the field of power, construction, road, real estate, industrial construction, oil & gas, metals, electrical and mechanicals.

EPC contractor companies In India
(Image courtesy of digitalart/

Nagarjuna Construction Company

NCC is a big name in the construction industry and 250 billion dollar company in Asia pacific. Company is established in year 1978 and further stretched in many divisions since then such as transportation, water, electrical, power, metals and oil & gas.
Nagarjuna construction company’s headquarter is located at Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh and company has completed many prestigious project in India and overseas.

Larsen & Toubro

Larsen & Toubro is a big name in the construction industry and amongst the top EPC companies in India. Larsen & Toubro 13.5 billion dollar company; It was established by 2 engineers Larsen and Toubro in the year 1938 in Mumbai.  It mainly focuses on construction, engineering and manufacturing sectors in India and It has successfully completed thousands of projects under the brand name.
Company is divided into many divisions and once any client Project is finalized they hand it over to the respective division of  L&T group.

Punj Lloyd

Punj Lloyd is dedicated group of companies for EPC services in the area of Engineering, manufacturing, infrastructure and energy.
Company has been operating in many countries including south Asia, Middle East and pacific Asia along with India. 


IVRCL is top Engineering, procurement and Construction Company which executes various types of projects such as civil construction, power, irrigation, industrial structure and mining. IVRCL has a long client list which includes top government sector companies like oil & natural gas corporation, BHEL, Power grid corporation of India, Indian oil corporation etc.


GMR is a leading Infrastructure Company and mainly deals in Airport, highways and Energy sectors. GMR group has completed many of the prestigious Airport projects including Delhi International Airport, GMR International Airport Hyderabad and Istanbul International Airport, Turkey.
GMR Company’s corporate headquarter is located at Bangalore in Karnataka.

Tata projects

Tata Projects established in the year 1979 is a part of the prestigious Tata Group. It is amongst best EPC companies in India, which delivers the project on time without compromising quality. Tata Projects has total 3 regional offices in India and 3 registered overseas offices. Company has completed several construction projects including water, oil and hydro carbon, mining and railways.

Lanco Infratech

This Company has a powerful EPC work profile mainly in the sector of power, solar and infrastructure. Company has completed a number of thermal and power projects including Solar Energy. Lanco Infratech has emerged one amongst of  the top EPC companies in India and bagged many  international and national power projects in recent past.

Hindustan Construction Company

Hindustan Construction Company has a global presence and it is a part of HCC group. HCC has been constantly working as a top player as EPC Contractor Company and so far has completed many of the infrastructure, power and hydro projects. In year 2011-12 overall group  achieved total turnover of 8157 Crore.

Gammon India

Gammon India is based in Mumbai with the turnover of 1.1 million dollar in the year 2011-12. It is a civil engineering Construction Company which diversified the business in Power, infrastructure, highway and power distribution & transmission. It is one of the oldest EPC company in India which started the first construction activity in year 1919.

JP Associates

JP associate is a flagship company of Jaypee group. JP associates is one of the prominent business unit in EPC sector in India and has been in the civil engineering construction sector for past 4 decades as a turnkey project company mainly deals in mega hydro projects, construction and transportations.

Above list of top EPC contractors may be useful for the Industries and companies to hire the EPC contactor for their Projects. As well as it serves the purpose of working  professionals and students who are looking to get the job in Best EPC companies in India. If we have missed out any important company then please write your suggestion below in comments section.

You can also read our best posting on Top PEB companies In India and Top cement companies in India.

Top cement companies in India

You must be amazed with the fact that India is the second largest cement manufacturer after China. It has been made possible because of enormous growth in the infrastructure and construction sector in India for the last 2 decades. Major cement manufacturers in India are big group of companies, which holds about 80% market. Below is a list of top cement companies in India, these are top cement manufactures; which caters the largest Indian and overseas market.

Top cement manufacturers in india
(Image courtesy of domdeen/

ACC Limited

ACC limited is a Partner Company of Holcim group and it is the best cement company in India. Also, ACC limited is a major player in the area of ready mix concrete company. ACC limited has substantially held the market leadership and they achieved the sales volume of 24.11 million tons cement in the year 2012. Company’s headquarter is located in Mumbai and has 16 cement manufacturing plants within the country.
List of ACC cement plants in India

Plant Location
Karnataka New Wadi, Wadi, Kudithini, Thondebhavi
Maharastra Chanda
Tamilnadu Madukkarai
Rajasthan Lakheri
Jharkhand Sindri, Chaibasa
Utter Pradesh Tikaria
Andhra Pradesh Vizag
Madhya Pradesh Kymore, Gagal
Himachal Pradesh Bilaspur
West Bangal Damodhar
Orissa Bargarh

UltraTech Cement

UltraTech cement limited, an Aditya Birla group company  has total 22 plants located all across the India. UltraTech manufactures all types of cements including white cement, rapid hardening and ordinary Portland pozzolana cement. Furthermore, UltraTech cement is the largest white cement manufacturer in India.
List of UltraTech cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Maharashtra Awarpur
Rajasthan Kotputli, Kharia Khangar (Jodhpur), Adityapuram ( Chittorgarh)
Andhra Pradesh Bhogasamudram
Chattisgarh Hirmi, Rawan (Raipur)
Madhya Pradesh Neemuch
Tamil Nadu Reddipalayam
Karnataka Gulberga
Gujrat Kovaya ( Amreli), Jafrabad,

Jaypee Cement

Jaypee group is one of the big corporate house and well-known Indian group in the area of infrastructure, power, real state and road construction. Jaypee group started the cement business in year 2001 and become 3rd best cement company in India having capacity to produce about 37.5 MTPA.
List of Jaypee Cement plants in India

Plant Location
Madhya Pradesh Rewa, Bela, Sidhi, Satna, Majhigawan
Gujrat Sewagram, Wanakbori,
Himachal Pradesh Bagheri, Baga
Utrakhand Roorkee
Chattisgarh Bhilai,
Andhra Pradesh Jaggayyapeta
Jharkhand Bokaro (SAIL Joint venture)
Uttar Pradesh Sadhwakhurd, Tanda, Sonebhadra, Chunar, Sikandrabad
Haryana Khukhrana (Panipat)

Ambuja Cement

Ambuja cement is also one of the leading cement manufacturers in India. Company has started the cement production in year 1986. It is also a part of the Halcim Group and has a capacity to produce about 27 metric tons of cement per annum.

List of Ambuja Cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Himachal Pradesh Darlaghat
Punjab Ropar, Bhatinda
Rajasthan Pali
Gujrat Kodinar
West Bangal Sankrail
Chhattisgarh Bhatapara

Shree Cement

Shree cement is a well known company in the area of cement manufacturing. It has been producing cement in three popular brand; Shree ultra, Bangur and Rockstrong cement. Shree cement is presently producing around 13.5 million tons of cement per annum.
List of Shree Cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Rajasthan Jobner ( Jaipur), Beawer, Ras, Khushkhera ( Bhiwadi), Suratgarh
Uttaranchal Laksar (Roorkee)

India Cements

India cement is one of the oldest cement manufacturers in India, Which started cement production in year the 1946 at Sankargarh in Tamilnadu. Since then it has setup total 9 plants with a capacity to produce about 14 million tons of cement per annum.
List of India cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Tamilnadu Sanakgarh, Dalavoi, Sankri, Chennai
Andhra Pradesh Yeramguntla, Chillarkur, Vishnupuram, Malkapur

Ramco Cement

Ramco Cement is a part of Madras cement limited and has total 5 cement manufacturing units in the southern region of India with a total production capacity of 13 million tons per annum. Not only Ramco a top cement companies in India but it has great reputation in ready mix concrete manufacturing.
List of Ramco cement plant in India

Plant Location
Tamil Nadu Ariyalur, Alathiyur, Virudhunagar,
Karnataka Mathodu (Chitradurga)
Andhra Pradesh Jayanthipuram

Prism Cement

Prism cement plant is located at Mankhari in Satna district, which is largest solitary kiln cement plant in the country. Company has earned the respect of investors and potential growth in cement manufacturing made one of the top cement manufactures in the country.
Prism cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Madhya Pradesh Mankhari (Satna)

JK cement

JK cement is among  the top cement manufactures in India. It started the cement manufacturing in the year 1975 at Nimbahera in Rajasthan, since then it has total 4 grey cement plants with a capacity to produce 7.5 MTPA. JK cement is second largest white cement manufacturers after UltraTech with a capacity of 3 lacs tons per annum.
JK cement Plants in India

Plant Location
Rajasthan Nimbahera, Mangrol (Chittorgarh), Gotan, Gotan (White cement)
Karnataka Mudhol (Bagalkot)

Rain cement

Rain cement is a part of the Rain commodities limited and it has 2 plants in Andhra Pradesh. They started manufacturing of cement in the year 1986. Rain cement caters the market under the name of Priya cement. It has a production capacity of about 3 MTPA.
List of Rain cement plants in India

Plant Location
Andhra Pradesh MellachervuMandal, PeapullyMandal

You can also read my previous post on Top Pre-engineered building companies in India

Indian Air force ranks and selection criteria

Are you passionate, dedicated and adventurous person then no other profession than Air Force will satisfy your thirst. It is one of the premier government job category, which offers greatly disciplined life and give an opportunity to serve the nation. Indian Air Force is one of the country’s oldest defense organization, which offers youth to join Indian Air Force in various categories. Broadly, I have listed down the Indian air force ranks and selection criteria for aspiring youth to opt for the career in Indian Air Force.

Air force ranks
(Image courtesy of Tim Beach /

OR or Non-commissioned

To join Indian army as a non commissioned category; a person should have passed 10+2 with main in physics and mathematics. Indian Air force conducts the written and physical examination from time to time. One can join IAF and promotion can take him up to the sergeant level in non-commissioned category and afterwards Master warrant officer in junior commissioned category. 

Following are the Indian Air Force ranks for the Non-commissioned category.

  • Air Man
  • Leading Air Man
  • Corporal
  • Sergeant
Age and Education:

16-20 - Years for 10+2 pass
16-22 - Years for Diploma
20-25 - years for Graduates
20- 28 - Year for Post Graduates

JCO or junior commissioned officer

JCO or Junior commissioned officer rank is the middle category of the Indian Air Force hierarchy. Whereas, Non-commissioned people will report to JCO, further Junior commissioned officers reports to commissioned officers.

There are three major Indian Air force ranks provided to Junior commisioned officer.

  • Junior Warrant Officer
  • Warrant Officer
  • Master Warrant Officer 

Commissioned officer

Joining as commissioned officer in India Air Force offers you great chance to go up to the apex rank of the Air force body. Indian Air force select the best and quality candidates for the commissioned officer and person has to undergo tough training after successful selection in the force.

In India there are 5 types of selection procedures for Commissioned Officer.

NDA Scheme (Men Only)

Age: 16.5 to 19 Years
Qualification:  10+2 with physics and mathematics

CDSE Scheme

Age: 19 to 23 years -flying branch (Men Only)
Education: 3 Year Graduation in any stream / BE or B Tech

AFCAT Scheme

Flying Branch

Age: 19 to 23 years
Education: 3 Years Graduate / BE or B Tech with minimum 60%

Technical Branch

Age: 18 to 28 years
Education: BE or B Tech / Technical Graduate

Grounds Duty Branch

Age: 20 to 23 years & up to 27 years for Post Graduate
Education: Graduate and Post Graduate Degree

NCC Selection scheme

Age: 19 to 23 years -flying branch (Men Only)
Education and Other Criteria: NCC Air Wing ‘C’ certification and 3 Year Graduation in any stream / BE or B Tech with minimum of 60%

SSC (Short Service Commission) Scheme

Age: 19 to 23 years -flying branch (Men and Women)
Education: 3 Year Graduation in any stream / BE or B Tech

Following are the Indian Air force ranks for commissioned officer;

  • Flying officer
  • Flight Lieutenant
  • Squadron Leader
  • Wing commander
  • Group captain
  • Air commodore
  • Air vice marshal
  • Air marshal
  • Air chief marshal
Indian Air Force invites application for the mentioned schemes time to time throughout the year. Person who is willing to join the Indian Air force needs to be physically fit as per the Air  Force standards and must pass the medical examination followed by the written test.

You can also read about Indian Army ranks

Importance of Lightweight concrete or Foamed concrete


Why to use light weight concrete? Because lightweight concrete or foamed concrete is a special type of concrete, an option for those concrete structures which are not built as per standards to take the dead load of plain cement concrete. Altogether lightweight concrete fulfills the requirement in some special building technology cases where thermal insulation and sound barrier needs to be implemented.
It is a mix of cement, aggregates and air entering agents. Lightweight concrete can be made by mixing all the three basic concrete elements as per standard guidelines. Soon after, air entertaining agent is introduced at the time of foam process. Generally air volume left in lightweight concrete is more than 25%.

foamed concrete
(Image courtesy of xedos4 /

Lightweight concrete can either be prepared at site or shaped in pre-cast blocks and panels manufactured at factory. In the cast-in-situ process, mixing and placing of concrete is carried out at site. On the other hand, Pre-cast panels and blocks are available in many shape and sizes for many purposes such as thermal insulation, sound barriers and wall casting. We can achieve the density ranging 500 to 1800 kg/m3 using both methods.

Aggregates for Lightweight concrete

Basically lightweight concrete is used to reduce the weight of concrete. Therefore, lightweight concrete contains should be low dense and weigh less than 1000 kg/m3. Lightweight concrete aggregates can be obtained naturally or artificially and mostly depends on the local availability of the material.
    • Volcanic aggregates
    • Fly ash
    • Silica
    • Vermiculite
    • Perlite

Things to be taken care while making the Foam concrete

Foamed concrete is made of using the super lightweight aggregate like expanded polystyrene, which is 70% lighter than ordinary concrete. It can be placed easily by pumping if required, and does have the ability to self compacting and self leveling.

    • Mixing the required concrete constituents in standard proportionate and introduce foaming agents.
    • Water cement ratio should be kept in between 0.5 to 0.6 and more water may be added to increase the workability.
    • Perform foam process in concrete using foam generator. In this process, foam agent is diluted with water and then solution is expanded with air into foam.
    • Make the concrete slurry, before introducing the foam solution. Ideally, it is recommended to launch the foaming process just before pouring the concrete.

Advantages of using Light weight concrete or foamed concrete 

    • It helps to reduce the dead weight of concrete, therefore suitable for those structures which are not permissible to take the load of plain concrete. The weight of plain cement concrete is 2400 kg/m3 as compared to lightweight concrete whereas density of concrete can be achieved up to 400 kg/m3 in some special cases.
    • Lightweight concrete is preferred for thermal insulation and sound barrier wall as it does have good thermal property due to availability of air voids.
    • Useful for the inaccessible locations such as laid sewer lines, tunnels and tanks as it requires minimum compaction and formwork.
    • Foamed concrete does have good thermal insulation property therefore useful for roof and floor screeds in high temperature locations.
    • It helps to improve the fire rating of concrete surface.

Lightweight concrete has a less compressive strength and abrasion resistance characteristics; therefore it is not suitable for load bearing structures.


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