Indian Army ranks and selection criteria

Job in Indian Army is a dream come true for any youth; it is not only to serve the Nation but it is considered to be the most reputed government job. I have broadly listed down the requirement and Indian Army ranks which are useful for aspiring candidates, who are willing to choose the career in Indian Army.
Indian Army ranks
(Image courtesy of bandrat /


OR / Non-commissioned

To join Indian army as a soldier,  person should be metric pass with 45% aggregate in the examination for general duty and 10+2 for special duty such as technical  and clerical trade in defence force.
Age limit: 17.5 to 21 years
Following are the details of Indian Army ranks in other categories (Lowest to highest);

  • Sipahi
  • Lance Naik
  • Naik
  • Havaldar
If you join the Indian Army as soldier, you shall be promoted based on the performance up to Havaldar in Non-commissioned category. 


JCO / Junior commissioned officer

To directly join as a Junior commissioned officer in Indian army person should be10+2 pass and have additional qualifications such as 3 years graduation and a diploma in specific stream as per the requirement. However non-commissioned can be promoted for JCO in case he acquires the required qualification during the service.
Age limit: 20 years to Specified as per requirement.
There are following Junior commissioned officer ranking structure in Indian Army (Lowest to highest)
  • Naik Subedar
  • Subedar
  • Subedar Major


Commissioned officer

Joining Indian army as a Commissioned officer offers a great way to excel your career and one can go up to the apex rank of Indian Army. In India, there are two types of joining process for commissioned officers. A person can join National defence academy after completion of 10+2 and second he/she can directly join Indian army as a lieutenant after completing of graduation degree.
The commission also offers female candidates to join the Indian army as a Commissioned officer.
NDA (National defence academy)
Age limit: 16.5 to 19 years
Direct entry after Graduation
Age limit: 21 to 27 years
Following are the Indian army ranks for Commissioned officers (Lowest to highest)
  • Lieutenant
  • Captain
  • Major
  • Lt. Colonel
  • Colonel
  • Brigadier
  • Major General
  • Lieutenant General
  • General
Apart from the qualification, a person should be physically and mentally fit to work for Indian army and he should qualify the written and physical examination conducted by Army Commission.

Know the importance of materials in Concrete mixes

Material science has a simple law, know the importance of each material and add it into the recipe in specific amount. It applies everywhere either you are cooking food or pouring concrete.  For cooking the delicious food item you have to add the right portion of required ingredients in recipe. Same as food item, quality concrete mixes should be prepared knowing the importance of all constituents in the concrete.

There are 4 main ingredients required to produce the concrete;
  •           Binding material i.e. Cement
  •          Course Aggregates or jelly
  •           Fine Aggregates
  •           Water

(Image courtesy of cbenjasuwan /

Cement – Binders 

As we all know, cement is a binder material made of 4 base elements lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide, then form clinker to fine powder. It is mainly used as binding material in construction.
In contact with water reacts chemically to form cement paste, this reaction is called hydration. Hydration process is slow and takes longer period even after hardening of concrete.

Sand – Fine aggregates

In Construction work sand is used as an inert material in the mortar and concrete. It is naturally obtained from the river and water stream beds. Also, sand can be obtained artificially by crushing stone.

Sand serves the following purpose in concrete mixes
  • Sand divides the paste of binding material into the thin film which allow binder to spread and stick to it
  • It helps to reduce the cost of binder material like cement and increase the volume of binding material.
  • It helps to fill up the gap between two jelly blocks and spread the binder.
  • Sand is more important material which helps in preventing shrinkage of binder material i.e. cement.

Gravel/Stone – Course aggregates

Gravel and stone are the main materials used as jelly or aggregates in concrete mixes. Stone form the granular structure, which make the concrete stronger.  Stone can be obtained naturally and artificially using the various techniques such as crushing them using the mechanical equipments.

The size of course aggregates should not be greater than 80 mm and less than 4.75 mm as per IS standards. Further, Course aggregates should take approximate 70 to 80% weight of total volume of concrete.


Water is an important element which helps cement in hydration process. As per the rule of thumb 25 to 30 % of water (by weight) is required to hydrate the cement. Water used in concrete should be free of oil, paint and other chemicals. You can also read more on the importance of water for construction in my previous post.

Concrete Mixes

As I discussed above, concrete is a mix of cement, course aggregates, fine aggregates and water. It can be mixed by various methods;
  •           Hand Mixing
  •          Concrete Mixer
  •           Ready mix concrete

Specification of concrete mixes as per IS Standards

Grade  of Concrete
Portion ( Cement : Fine Aggregates : Course Aggregates)
For PCC, non reinforcement work and mass concrete
For RCC flooring and structural work relatively less load bearing
For heavy and industrial structural work
Above M30
Obtain by Mix design
For heavy and special type of construction purpose

*M stands for mix and numerical value refers to the compressive strength of cement concrete in 28 days.



We all are familiar with the term transformer and know the importance of this bulky equipment in power distribution. Transformer is an important electrical equipment which transfer energy between its winding circuits through inductive coupling to supply power to almost everything including houses, industries, offices and commercial buildings.

It is not daily use equipments for home owners therefore transformer manufacturing companies are always looking to get the business from the power, industrial and commercial sector. I am helping you to minimize your search efforts, therefore sharing top power transformer manufacturers and supplier in India. These power equipments manufacturing companies are not only producing transformers for Indian customers but they also consistently supplying to overseas customers.

Top Transformer manufacturers
(Image courtesy of SOMMAI /

Here is a list of top transformer manufacturers in India, these are top manufacturer in the field of transformers having rich experience in designing, engineering and developing of the quality products. 

Siemens India

It is a big name in the power industry which deals in all type of electrical equipments worldwide. Siemens is quality production house for more than 100 years supplying various types of transformer including Power, HVDC, Traction and shunt transformers 

Also, Siemens India is leading company which tops the list of transformer manufacturers in India.


Transformer & Rectifiers

Incorporated in 1994, Transformer & Rectifiers (India) Ltd. has consolidated its position in Indian Transformer industry. It is a wide range to transformer manufactures, which conform to the quality expectations of both the domestic and international markets. 

 Manufacturing Units:


Gujarat Transformers

 Gujarat Transformers is leading transformers manufacturer in India. It is a 40 years old company which is expertise in manufacturing of power, distribution, air cooled and many other types of transformers.

Manufacturing Unit:
Vadodara, Gujarat


Danish Private Limited

Danish private limited is founded in the year 1981 and well known name in the power sector. Initially they started manufacturing battery charges but become quality competitor in the area of power and distribution equipments. They offer wide range of power products of different specifications such as control & relay panels and transformers.

Manufacturing Unit:
Jaipur, Rajasthan


Urja Techniques

It is known group partner companies of technocrats, having vast experience in the area of Power transformer design, manufacturing and services.

Manufacturing Unit:
Mumbai, Maharashtra


You can also read my previous post on importance of control and relay panels in substations.  

Importance of water for construction


If something goes wrong in construction, people often blame poor quality of work execution, improper quantity of cements or non-gradation of aggregates. However few elements of concrete also has some impact on the construction. Water in concrete always gets least importance and often ignored by the people at the time of construction. We should not forget that water is an integral part of construction and any kind of compromises in quality of water during construction may ruin all our efforts made at the time of construction. Water is required for each and every construction activity whether laying PCC for foundation or curing the concrete after completion of work. 

(Image courtesy of Idea go /

Therefore, you must follow standard guidelines for deciding which water to use for construction work. Below I have mentioned few of the important factors that must be analyzed thoroughly before using water for construction purpose.
  • Water should be free from acid, alkalis, oil, grease and paint to allow proper bond with concrete.
  • Ph value of water should be identical to neutral level of 7.
  • Water should be free from salt content and if excessive salt content is present in water then it should be treated with proper procedures.
  • In general 27 degree Celsius is ideal water temperature for construction work and it is recommended to avoid extreme hot water for construction.
  • Water should be free from organic and silt content and turbidity should not exceed to1.0 NTU.
  • Avoid hard water for construction and post construction activity like curing. 

Allowable water content for construction

Allowable Maximum value
200 mg / litre
3000 mg/ litre
500 mg / litre
Suspended Particles
2000 mg / litre
500 mg / litre

Apart from above, the most important thing that I have learnt over the years that water is fit for drinking is appropriate for the construction purpose.

Following is a list of some of the major problems that may arise, if quality of water differs during construction.
  • Water is an important element which helps cement in hydration therefore proper quantity of water/cement ratio should be maintained, excessive water in concrete leads to shrinkage and cracks.
  • Presence of high iron content in water will develop cracks in the concrete surface.
  • Excessive amount of water in concrete mix segregate the fine and coarse materials resulting in improper bonding with concrete.
  • Hard water is harmful for concrete as it contains magnesium chloride, sulfate and hydrogen carbonates. However it harms concrete to certain extent but will corrode the reinforcement completely within the structure.

 Concrete strength based on the water cement ratio

W/C Ratio
Concrete Strength
100 %

Best way to check the quality of water is by testing it in the laboratory and if any objectionable content found then water should be treated as per the IS guidelines. Moreover, specimen should achieve at least 95% strength when compressive test is to be carried out. 

You can also read my previous post on concrete curing compounds.

Top pre engineered building companies in India


In India concept of PEB (Pre-engineered building) was introduced in early 90’s and significantly it has emerged as a best solution especially in industrial and commercial construction. It is annually growing at the rate of 15% and seems Pre-engineered building technology will overtake RCC and steel structure very soon.

PEB is adopted quickly by the industries because construction of PEB is rather easier which takes lesser time and roughly 20 to 30 % cheaper than any other conventional method of construction. There are hundreds of companies in India which caters large market of  Pre engineered building products. We provide you a list of some of the top pre engineered building companies, which are the best solution providers in the area of Pre-engineered building products such as prefabricated structure, wall cladding, puff panels, single skin sheet, insulated panels and insulations.

(Image courtesy of njaj/

Kirby Building Solutions

As the punch line suggests it is a global leader in PEB manufacturing and design. They are operating in many countries with the manufacturing in India. Kirby has emerged as a top PEB manufacturer and so far it has completed many prestigious Industrial projects.

Manufacturing Units:
Hyderabad (India)
Haridwar (India)

Interarch Buildings

Interarch Building products private limited is a major player in pre-engineered building launched in the year 1984.  They are prominent prefabricated structure manufacturer having 4 manufacturing units in India, which caters to large industrial and commercial sector of country.

Manufacturing Units:
Greater Noida (Uttar Pradesh)
Pantnagar (Utrarakhand)
Sriperumbudur ( Tamilnadu)
Kichha ((Utrarakhand)

Tata BlueScope

It is a joint venture between Tata and BlueScope steel which offers a wide range of pre fabricated building products such as coating sheets, wall panels and insulations. Tata itself is a big name in India and apart from the product company is more concerned about their values towards health, safety and environment.

Manufacturing Units:
Pune (Maharashtra)
Bhiwadi (Rajastan) 
Sriperumbudur (Tamil Nadu)

Jindal Buildsys

Jindal is big name in the industry and leading steel manufacturer for last couple of decades.  Jindal buildsys was founded in the year 2002 and became one of the top contributors in the engineered buildings product manufacturing in recent past.

Lloyd Insulations

Lloyd insulation is leading insulation solution provider which later started manufacturing of Pre engineered building products. They deal in wide range of products such as thermal insulation, building insulation, and acoustics building.

Zamil Steel Buildings

Leading pre-engineered building manufacturer company started operation in the year 2008 in India. It is a big company and world leader in the sector of steel construction.

Manufacturing Units:
Pune (Maharashtra)

Tiger Steel

Tiger steel is another PEB manufacture company and reliable name in infrastructure development and steel industry.

Manufacturing Units:
Mumbai (Maharastra)
Haridwar (Utrarakhand)

Everest industries

Everest industries limited is a 75 years old company which offers wide variety of building products such as wall cladding, roofing, flooring and pre fabricated steel buildings.

Manufacturing Units:
New Delhi

Great way to cure concrete using concrete curing compound


You always want to give your building smooth and crack free surface and this is possible if you properly cure the concrete surface after pouring the concrete. We all know, concrete undergo hydration process and this process requires sufficient amount of water. Therefore, maintain the supply of water during the hydration process of concrete until it gets cured properly.
Manual or conventional water curing is easy process but it may cost you more if labor charges are high in your area. Instead, you can use concrete curing compound which is liquid plastic and can apply just after pouring the concrete. It will seal the moisture into the concrete until it gets cured. Also, concrete curing compound offers non-porous surface which prevents from entering water in the surface which help direct penetration of water and chemical cause’s reinforcement corrosion.
You can also read my previous post on how to minimize the concrete surface cracks.

(Image courtesy of Sira Anamwong/

Application of curing compound

  • Apply curing mix on the concrete surface as soon as concrete gains some strength and water of surface gets disappeared.

  • Apply 2 to 3 coats of concrete curing compound with the help of brush or roller. It is advisable to read the product manufacturer instruction to achieve the desirable results.

  • Ideally, concrete should not be poured if temperature is above 35 degree or less than 14 degree Celsius. Also, avoid concreting in high wind condition; it may develop small hair cracks all across the surface.

  • Concrete should be sealed as soon as it is get hardened; delay in process causes water to evaporate.

  • After applying of curing compound it is recommended to wrap the surface area with plastic sheets / vapor barrier to prevent water losses.

  • Deploy skilled manpower to spread the curing compounds because any space left in surface coating may allow water to disappear from the surface.

  • Prevent the traffic movement on the surface at least for 7 days until it gets cured properly.

Advantages of concrete curing compound

    • It helps to prevent surface concrete cracking which often appear due to improper hydration process of concrete.

    • Curing compounds help water to retain in the concrete which increase the strength and abrasion resistance of concrete.

    • It helps to decrease the construction cost whereas water cost is high. Although, it offer homeowners great comfort to avoid conventional curing system.

    • It is useful for high rise building and mass concrete structure work as practically conventional curing systems are not feasible in these job sites.

    • Generally it is a cost-effective method for large scale construction projects, whereas conventional curing systems are not feasible due to high labour cost.
    Curing the concrete using curing compound is appropriate methods to cure the large construction, individual homes and industrial sites.

    List of best engineering colleges


    For students, finding the right college for studying is very much important. Though there are thousands of engineering colleges offering 4 years engineering degree program in India. Therefore,  I am sharing useful information of best 25 engineering colleges in India. If you are a student and preparing for IIT, AIEEE or any regional examination, this list of engineering colleges will be useful to get familiar with country’s top Engineering institute.

    Top engineering colleges

    (Click on image to see larger view)

    I would request you to share this engineering colleges info graphic with students.

    You also can read my previous article on best civil engineering websites.

    Important things to consider while laying of tiles

    You prefer durable and good looking vitrified tile flooring for your home; therefore you always select quality tiles for the flooring. There are thousands of color and design options available to choose in vitrified tile, which is considered to be good water and abrasion resistant. Despite of selecting right type of tiles for your flooring, you often face various problems after installation. It is mainly because of improper laying of tiles. Following general problems may occur if laying of vitrified tiles not done properly.

    • Providing improper slope and level will allow water to accumulate on the floor.
    • Improper filling of tile joints not only weaken the flooring surface but may lead to injury due to sharp tile edges.

    • Fixing tile on an uneven surface or tiles not properly glued with adhesive tend to break due to movement on the floor.

    • It will give shabby look as well as allow dust to settle down if joints are not sealed firmly.

    (Image courtesy of sixninepixels/

    Vitrified tiles Installation check list         

    • Workout the total area and procure at least 7% additional tiles considering wastage.

    • Tile base concrete surface should be well cleaned, free from dust and other foreign particles.

    • Vitrified tiles sub-base should be well compacted and firm to take the load as supple flooring may damage tile early due to traffic movement.

    • Ideally slope should be maintained in sub-base if vitrified tiles are installed directly on the hard concrete floor using adhesives.
  • Complete painting and plastering work to be done before laying the floor tiles.
  • Use spirit level to fix the tile and make sure that all tiles are properly levelled.

  • Level the flooring before laying vitrified tiles and ensure proper slope towards drain points and keep sufficient space below door and flooring to swing it freely.

  • Before you allow traffic movement on floor, at least give 24 hours time to get it cured properly. If you start movement earlier, it will damage tile flooring resulting in an uneven surface.

  • Pieces of tiles wherever required should be placed towards wall side to avoid sharp edges in the middle of the flooring.

  • Use rubber or plastic spacer to maintain the tiles evenness and grouping.

  • Material/grout should be mixed properly and poured well within the setting time recommended by the manufacturer.

  • Excess grout in joints should be removed using trowel and grout material on tile surface should be cleaned with sponge.

  • After laying of vitrified tiles it must be tapped with metal rod if you hear hollow sound then replace the tile with new one.

  • Tile should be cut properly in single score; many score may lead tile to crack and uneven finish
  • You must adhere to above mentioned check list to achieve great looking flooring. It is also recommended to hire skilled and trained manpower to carry out installation for tile flooring job.

    You can also read my previous post on
    how to prevent surface cracks in concrete floor

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